很多同学在写文章的时候，往往想到某个意思，立刻脑子中想到都是例如I think, important, show, because, moreandmore等等这些词汇，我们称这些为第一反应词，所谓第一反应词，就是每个人第一时间反应出来的这些表达。如果要写出一篇高质量的文章，除了内容，词的使用能够表现出你的英语能力，也是打动审稿人的一个重要环节。
1. individuals, characters, folks 替换 people , persons.
2. positive, favorable, rosy, promising, perfect, pleasurable, excellent, outstanding, superior 替换 good.
3. dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill 替换 bad（如果bad做表语，可以有be less impressive替换。）
4. an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of, a host of, many, if not most 替换 many.（注：用many, if not most 一定要小心，many后一定要有词。）
5. a slice of, quiet a few 替换 some.
6. harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 替换 think（因为是书面语，所以要加that）。
7. affair, business, matter 替换 thing.
8. shared 替换 common .
9. reap huge fruits 替换 get many benefits.
10. for my part ,from my own perspective 替换 in my opinion.
11. Increasing（ly）， growing 替换 more and more（注意没有growingly这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用increasing/growing修饰形容词，副词用increasingly.）
12. little if anything或little or nothing 替换 hardly.
13. beneficial, rewarding 替换 helpful.
14. shopper, client, consumer, purchaser 替换 customer.
15. overwhelmingly, exceedingly, extremely, intensely 替换 very.
16. hardly necessary, hardly inevitable… 替换 unnecessary, avoidable.
17. indispensable 替换 necessary.
18. sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 替换sb take interest in / sb. be interested in.
19. capture one's attention 替换 attract one's attention.
20. facet, demension, sphere 替换 aspet.
21. be indicative of, be suggestive of, be fearful of 替换 indicate, suggest, ear.
22. give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 替换 cause.
23. There are several reasons behind sth 替换 …reasons for sth.
24. desire 替换 want.
25. pour attention into 替换 pay attention to.
26. bear in mind that 替换 remember.
27. enjoy, possess 替换 have（注意process是过程的意思）。
28. interaction 替换 communication.
29. frown on sth 替换 be against , disagree with sth .
30. to name only a few, as an example 替换 for example, for instance.
31. next to / virtually impossible 替换 nearly / almost impossible.
32. regarding / concerning 替换 about.
33. crucial /paramount 替换 important.
34. 第一（in the first place/the first and foremost）；第二（there is one more point, I should touch on, that…）；第三（the last but not the least）。
35. assiduous 替换 hard-working
36. arduous 替换 difficult
37. underdeveloped / financially-challenged 替换poor（因为poor通常含有贬义）
38. demonstrate / manifest 替换 show
39. invariably 替换 always
40. perilous / hazardous替换 dangerous（写社会类作文时常用，说什么社会现象是不好的，有害的）
41. formidable 替换 difficult
42. quintessential 替换 typical（举例时常用，例如：a quintessential example should be cited that=for example; for instance）
43. distinguished 替换 famous
44. feasible 替换 possible
45. consequently, accordingly替换 so
1缺陷：disadvantage, demerit, drawback, downside, weakness
2消除 ：eliminate, clear, remove, clear up, take away, smooth away
3宣称：allege, assert, declare, claim
4培养：：develop, cultivate, foster
5优势：advantage, merit, virtue, benefit, upside, strength
6解决： solve, deal with, cope with, handle, resolve, address, tackle
7使迷惑：puzzle, bewilder, perplex, baffle
8重要的：key, crucial, critical, important, significant, vital, substantial, indispensable, imperative
9认为：think, believe, insist, maintain, assert, conclude, deem, hold, argue, be convinced, be firmly convinced,
be fully convinced
10保护：protect, conserve, preserve
11确保：assure, ensure, guarantee, pledge
12有害的：bad, baneful evil, harmful, detrimental
13要求 ：request, demand, needs, requisition
14损害：damage, hurt, injure, harm, impair, undermine, jeopardize
15导致：lead to, bring about, result in, cause, spark off, conduce to, procure, induce, generate
16因此：so, therefore, thus, hence, consequently, as a consequence, accordingly, as a result, because of this, as a result of this
17增长至：grow to，rise to，increase to，go up to，climb to，ascend to，jump to，shoot to
18降低至：dip to，fall to，decline to，decrease to，drop to，go down to，reduce to，slump to，descend to，sink to，
19保持稳定：level out，do not change，remain stable，remain still，remain steady，be stable，maintain the same level，
remain unchanged，be still，remain the same level，stay constant，keep at the same level，level off，
stabilize，keep its stability，even out
22 达到峰值：reach the top,reach the highest point,arrive at the peak,peak at
23 跌入低谷：drop to the bottom,hit the bottom,fall to the lowest point,hit the rock
24 给与：give, offer, render, impart, provide,supply, afford
25 发生：happen, occur, take place
26 原因：reason, factor, cause
27 发展：development, advance, progress
28 有益的：useful, helpful, beneficial, profitable, rewarding，advantageous
29 影响：influence, impact, effect
30事实上：practically，in practice，essentially，in essence，in reality，in effect，in fact，as a matter of fact，it is a fact that
31占：comprise, take up, account for, constitute, consist of, make up, occupy, hold, compose
32与…相比：compared with，compared to，in comparison with，in comparison to，by comparison with，by comparison to
33对比而言：by contrast，in contrast，on the other hand，on the contrary=，conversely
34展示：show, reveal, illustrate, demonstrate, depict, present, represent, describe
36波动：fluctuate，go up and down，display a fluctuation，demonstrate a fluctuation
37明显的：clear, obvious, evident, self-evident, manifest, apparent, crystal-clear
38换言之：namely，that is to say，in other words，to put it like this，to put it differently，to put it from another way
表递进moreover, in addition, what is more，furthermore, also, then, besides, etc.
表转折however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather than, instead of, but, yet,. unfortunately. Whereas, etc.
表强调in fact, indeed, actually, as a matter of fact, obviously, apparently
表结尾therefore, as a result, then, consequently, accordingly, thus, etc.
表列举for example, for instance, such as, take …for example. Except （for）， to illustrate
表顺序first, second, third, then, finally, to begin with, first of all, in the first place, last, next, above all, last but not the least,
first and most important
表可能presumably, probably, perhaps
表递进What is more, in addition, and, besides, also, furthermore, too, moreover, furthermore, as well as, additionally, again
表原因for this reason, due to, thanks to, because, because of, as, since, owing to
引出例子：for example, namely, for instance, as an example, that is
表总结 in summary in a word, in brief in conclusion, to conclude in fact, indeed in short, in other words of course,
it is true specially, namely in all, that is to summarize, thus as has been said, altogether in other words,
finally in simpler terms, in particular that is
research, study, investigate：research可做名词、动词，但通常做名词用，很少见到动词的用法。句中需要动词时常用study或investigate来表达。
detail/detailed：The properties of this compound were studied in detail.//The detailed properties of this compound were studied.//The details of the properties of this compound were studied.
follows/following：The results are as follows: ……//We got following results:……
increase, decrease：均可做名词和动词，We can observe an increase in the reaction rate.//The reaction rate increases.
focus, concentrate：focus: n. , v. The focus of this paper is ……This paper focuses on ……Our study focuses on ……We focus our study on ……Our study is focused on ……concentrate: v. We concentrate our study on ……Our study is concentrated on ……
effect, affect：effect: n. //affect: v.
compose, consist：A is composed of B and C.//A consists of B and C.
increase, improve：increase: 主要指数值上的增加。improve: 主要指性质的增加、改善。
A. 时态：当提到本文、此图、此表等说明了、表达了什么时要用一般现在时，而不用一般过去时。This paper describes ……The focus of this paper is ……Figure 1 shows……Most of the common condensation polymers are listed in Table 1-1.
当含意上强调复数时建议用复数。The catalyst concentrations for the different reactions are different. Our research focuses on the syntheses and characterizations of a series of polycarbonates with different chemical structures. The physical and chemical properties of this compound have been studied. The chain lengths of the oligomers with different molecular weights are different.
在标题、小标题中或描述一类事物、现象等，提到具体物质时常用复数。（Polyesters） Polymers are macromolecules built up by large numbers of small molecules. The small molecules which combine with each other to form polymer molecules are termed monomers.在标题、小标题或描述一类事物、现象等，提到抽象概念时可用单数、也可用复数。（Step Copolymerization） Newer Types of Step Polymerizations. This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail.
学术论文、有关学术的科普文章中的名词的可数或不可数特性的划分区别于非学术文章《非学术文章中的可数或不可数特性可从字典查到》。以下是在学术文章中通常视为可数名词的单词：《但在一般字典中它们或它们做某种含义解时可能被划归不可数名词》。Application development、 consideration、 composition、concentration、distribution、 structure、 length、 weight.
当同时提及几个图、表、方程式时要用复数（分别单个地提及则不用）：The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equations 2 and 3. The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equation 2 and Equation 3. Figs. 4 and 5 show ……
单数名词前一般要加冠词：a , the等； 但以下情况可不加：表示不特指的、较抽象的概念：
This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail. An understanding of the relative ease of cyclization or linear polymerization comes from a variety of sources.Different polymers are synthesized to yield various mechanical behaviors by the appropriate combinations of crystallinity, crosslinking, Tg, and Tm但需注意这些单词前加冠词也是经常见到的，这是由它在句中的含义决定的（如有一定的特指意义）：Polyisoprene is a typical elastomer– it is amorphous, easily crossed, has a low Tg （-73°C） and a high Tm （14°C）。
1-2 Types of Polymers and Polymerizations
1-4 Molecular Weight
1-5 Physical State
图、表的题目中有时可省略冠词：Fig. 2-2 Second order plot of the self-catalyzed polyesterification of adipic acid with diethylene glycol at 166 °C.……Fig. 8 Dependence of the ease of cyclization on the size of the ring.化学药品、化学物质前通常不加冠词：The polymerization is catalyzed by protonic or lewis acids although a wide variety of base catalysts such as calcium acetate and antimony trioxide can also be used.图中的横、纵坐标的名称前不加冠词。
D. 大小写：请注意以下结构的大、小写：当提及具体第几章、节；图、表；方程式时，首个字母通常要大写。As discussed in Chapter 2, ……In Section 1.2, we ……As shown in Figure 1, ……The results are listed in Table 3.当不指明是第几章、节；图、表；方程式时，首个字母如在句中通常用小写。In the previous chapter, ……As shown in this figure, ……
Figure Fig. Figures Figs.
Equation Eq. Equations Eqs.
F. 名词修饰：在学术文章中，很多时候会用到直接用名词做修饰，而不用’s 或 ……of …… 的形式。常见的这类词有：reaction rate；reaction rate constant；reaction temperature；reaction condition molecular weight distribution……
G. 分词修饰：the reaction we studied；the temperature used；the nonlinearity observed。所有格：非人的所有格用……of……， 而不用……’s